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Production Notes (Continued)
Filmmakers spent time in Oslo, where they met with experts in cultural studies and the history of the region. Deeply inspired by Nordic folklore, filmmakers saw several nods to the traditional storytelling, including trolls.

Up north in Karasjok and its surrounding areas, filmmakers met with Sami ethnographers, cultural practitioners and joikers. Filmmakers learned about Sami history, culture and art. They visited the Norwegian Sami Parliament and RiddoDuottarMuseat, a Sami museum, and attended a traditional reindeer herding siida.

"We were deeply touched by our time with the Sami in their homelands," says Del Vecho. During production, filmmakers continued to seek consultation with a Sami working group known as the Verddet on elements within the film that were inspired by their visit. "We are so grateful to the Sami for their continued collaboration," says Del Vecho.

The landscape in northern Norway inspired production designer Michael Giaimo. "All throughout northern Norway, we saw beautiful fall foliage," he says. "The height of the trees is incredible-and that works so beautifully in the 'Frozen' language, which is based on verticality. It was truly striking."

According to Buck, it wasn't just the trees that featured the striking colors. "The ground cover was just gorgeous and something we hadn't really expected. It was really special and is reflected in the film."

The filmmakers also visited Tromsø, spending time at the botanic gardens, studying regional plants-which proved valuable when filling the enchanted forest. They cruised to the Lofoten Islands as well.

The team explored Lake Inari in Finland, passing the sacred Sami island Ukonkivi. Filmmakers also visited the Sami Siida Museum and sat with Sami scholars and storytellers.

They also took a pivotal eight-mile hike in Finland forests to Pielpajarvi Wilderness Church-an experience that proved a valuable source of inspiration for what would become the film's enchanted forest sequences, as well as the characters and spirits that would inhabit it. "My first impression was how still and quiet it was," says director of story Marc E. Smith. "Most of the birds had migrated south, so there was no noise but the sound of our footsteps. The deeper into the forest we traveled, the more it felt like a meditation. But I couldn't help but feel as if we were quietly being watched."

"It was as if the forest was alive," adds Lee. "The giant boulders we saw seemed out of place-out there by themselves, as if they'd really been thrown by the giants we'd heard so much about."

Filmmakers heard stories about nature spirits in the forest. "We joked that they didn't seem to like me," says Lee. "I fell down and ripped my pants. Everything went wrong for me-while Chris was just skipping along."

Says Buck, "I had a great time. Norway and Finland felt like a fairy-tale world. It's very cozy and warm and wonderful."

Iceland inspired filmmakers in a different way. According to Buck, Norway and Finland's contrast with Iceland struck the filmmakers and fueled their burgeoning concept of fairytale and myth. "We found that the fairy-tale settings of Norway and Finland suited Anna-she'd feel at home there," he says. "Elsa, on the other hand, strangely felt at home in dark, mythic Iceland."

Lee, it turns out, could relate to Elsa. "I felt like I was home," she says. "I was completely fine with things that should've scared me. 'I'll go into the volcano,' I said. 'I'll walk on that glacier.' I knew I could slip and die if I fell into the crevasse, but I wasn't worried."

According to Smith, one of the other key learnings in Iceland was the unpredictability of nature. "When we saw the Seljalandsfoss waterfall, the weather turned from a few scattered clouds to a deluge of rain and hail in such a short time while we were there," he says. "At Gljufrabui-a hidden waterfall-we had to remove our shoes and walk through an ice-cold stream of water to get to the waterfall. We could've been stepping on jagged rocks and not known it because our feet were so frozen. Unlike Elsa, the cold does bother me!"

Filmmakers also visited the black-sand beach Reynisfjara on the south coast of Iceland, which would serve as reference for Elsa's monumental entry point into the dark sea. Says Smith, "I remember thinking to myself how dramatic the setting was and how even though Elsa has enormous powers, nature is perhaps more powerful."

Smith says their walk on Solheimajokull-a glacier in southern Iceland, between the volcanoes Katla and Eyjafjallajokull-"really brought home the power of nature." For Buck, the power of Iceland was overwhelming. "I love adventurous things, but I preferred the cozy, fairy-tale place," he says.

"Growing up means adapting. Puzzling out your world and your place."

New Story Unfolds Against Fall Backdrop
When "Frozen" debuted in 2013, it largely reflected the icy ideas that might accompany a movie named "Frozen"-cool tones, snow and ice-despite the fact that it took place during summer. But "Frozen 2" is rooted in change, so production designer Michael Giaimo embraced the idea. "Anna and Elsa go on very specific journeys in 'Frozen 2,' and they both grow and mature in the process," says Giaimo. "Little by little they each peel back layers, revealing more and more depth and dimension in these characters. For me, that meant removing the layers of snow and getting down into the earth."

According to Giaimo, the new palette in "Frozen 2" embraced the colors of autumn, a season that's symbolic of change. But traditional colors seemed counter to the whole "Frozen" world. "A fall palette means an incredibly vibrant environment with striking colors that I was initially concerned would pull focus from our characters, or look like a new place and time," he says. "But we were able to create a 'Frozen' version of fall that still felt cool. We minimized the yellows in favor of oranges, orange-reds and red-violets. It's distinctive to our world."

"Frozen 2" also introduces the four elements-water, wind, earth and fire-that seem to be connected to the calling. Each element is associated with a color throughout the film. Says co-production designer Lisa Keene, "Fire is represented by hot magenta, water is greenish-blue or cyan, earth is a darker purple-bluish hue, and air or wind is a lighter blue. The colors are more or less saturated as needed."

According to Keene, the representation of the elements also includes a diamond motif. "We see diamond-shaped ice crystals at the end of 'Into the Unknown' with the symbols of the elements inside," says Keene. "The diamond motif is also in Queen Iduna's shawl, as well as at the entrance to the enchanted forest."

The story begins in Arendelle where Elsa hears the voice calling her, compelling her to embark on an adventure that will take her-as well as Anna, Kristoff, Olaf and Sven-to a host of new places, including a mysterious enchanted forest, a black-sand beach and dark sea, a paralyzing cavern and a climactic locale alluded to in Queen Iduna's lullaby.

David Womersley, art director of environments, says that since Arendelle was designed for a mostly winter environment, his team had to ensure it would look good in autumn. "When buildings are covered in snow, it creates a specific graphic look with cool colors," he says. "Some of the buildings were originally designed to look good against snow and ice. Not only did we have to remove the snow from those we wanted to reuse, we had to upgrade several buildings with new colors and details so they'd look good against a new backdrop that included not just trees and leaves, but fall decorations."

The Arendelle community went through a bit of a renovation-buildings received a fresh color scheme, banners were placed in celebration of the fall season, roof details filled in where snow might have been. But the real update happened in the computer. "The technology changed so much since the first film that we had to do a lot of rebuilding," says Womersley. "We get a lot closer to some of the buildings, so we wanted to make them look as good as possible."

Crowds supervisor Yasser Hamed and his team were responsible for populating Arendelle. "Anna walks through Arendelle and she's really happy as she interacts with the crowd," he says. "The crowd has to feel alive and dense. And now that Arendelle is open, there are people from around the world living there."

The film is largely set in an enchanted forest-a location filled with foliage and underscored in magic. "I don't know if you know about enchanted forests, but they're places of transformation," says director Jennifer Lee, "whether you like it or not. Relationships are tested. Everything you thought you knew proves to be wrong. Powers that were once too strong for the world are suddenly not enough. It's easy to get lost." According to Giaimo, the fact that this forest is enchanted heavily influenced the look of the forest. "It is a beautiful place that's entirely surrounded by a wall of mist," he says. "We differentiate what fall looks like inside the enchanted forest versus outside-there are no blue skies in the enchanted forest. And since there is a wall of mist, there are deep layers of atmosphere that are filled with mystery."

Artists were inspired by the artist Eyvind Earle, who was a celebrated part of Disney Animation in the 1950s and behind the ethereal backgrounds and color choices in "Sleeping Beauty." Says head of environments Sean Jenkins, "When you look at his work, it's all about silhouette and shape and negative space-but how do you realize that in 3D?"

Adds Keene, "The way he grouped his trees in his landscapes was compelling and we loved his verticals. I also liked how turn-of-the-century Russian painters depicted light in their landscapes. Their work is just beautiful. It speaks to a palette we don't experience here in Southern California. There's a lot more atmosphere in those paintings."

According to Womersley, artists consulted a botanist from Oslo, Norway, to ensure they were populating the forest with appropriate vegetation. Among the 10 varieties of trees, is the aspen, which features predominantly in the film. "Our enchanted forest is different from what most people might expect," says Womersley. "It's not the oak forest from 'Snow White' where everything is curved and convoluted, because aspens have vertical trunks."

Adds Keene, "Fall is also on the ground. In fact, often it's more on the ground than in the trees, because they're so tall. There are beautiful ground covers that literally change hue in the fall. Add that to the trees and we ended up with an explosion of color, which was something we had to monitor to ensure we didn't lose our characters."

Examples of the ground cover include bearberry, crowberry and bracken fern. "Another one was fireweed," says Keene. "Fireweed is a really beautiful plant. It's very vertical. In the spring, it's green-leafed with little purple flowers on top. In the fall, those flowers seed out like a dandelion and the leaves turn a brilliant cranberry red. It was very decorative, so we used it a lot."

According to Jenkins, artists also explored textures within the forest in an effort to achieve authenticity. "We really wanted to add life to the items we placed in the forest," he says. "The rock faces have history-water has run through them, there's a buildup of dirt, organic material growing on them and leaves that have fallen on top of it all."

The enchanted forest was enveloped by a mysterious mist three decades ago-a product of the resident spirits who were angered by a fierce battle between Arendellian soldiers and the Northuldra. They've resided inside an impenetrable dome ever since.

"It's almost alive because it's constantly moving," says effects supervisor Erin Ramos. "The shape is always evolving, which was a big challenge for us. And the way it reacts to light looks magical and cool."

The mist, by design, is a volume that features some sparkle-to showcase the magic of it all-as well as the colors of the elements. "It had to look both soft and mist-like, but believably impenetrable," says Marlon West, head of effects animation. "It opens and closes when Elsa and Anna arrive. But once they're inside, the sky is altered to show that they are encased in an enchanted forest."

According to Mohit Kallianpur, director of cinematography lighting, if the mist were to lift, his team would create an entirely different look for the forest setting. "We'd create beautiful shafts of light to create a sense of warmth, beautiful clear skies and a lot of light bouncing around the trees and coming through the leaves."

Inspired by the black-sand beach and the basalt column cliffs in Reynisfjara on the south coast of Iceland, this coastal set is the launchpad for what is one of the toughest parts of Elsa's journey. According to Keene, the set was designed devoid of color. "It's a transition," she says. "She's leaving a lot behind to move forward, and she's doing it with no idea what lies ahead."

According to Womersley, it is a volcanic beach, which seems appropriate for the intense sequence. "It needed to be a very bleak location," he says. "We decided to make it almost like a black-and-white movie-the only color on the beach is her, and later in the Dark Sea, only Elsa and the Nokk have any color."

According to Scott Beattie, director of cinematography layout, the camera is an integral part of the storytelling. "The sequence is meant to be dramatic and dynamic," he says. "We wanted to add energy to the camera-most of it has a handheld feel."

Lighting scenes that feature so much darkness presented Kallianpur's lighting team with a few challenges. "Our job was to support Elsa's emotional journey at that point," he says. "We wanted to make the background really subdued and gray, but we did make sure that she popped. No matter how small she is in frame when she's running across the water, we introduce quite a bit of color around her. Whether it's through her magic that she's stepping on-the ice crystals that generate light-or just her clothing itself, she reads no matter what the action is, and there's a lot of action."

Elsa's magic takes on a less lyrical form in the Dark Sea. "She's in a battle with the Nokk and the ocean," says effects supervisor Erin Ramos. "She's pretty powerful-she built a giant castle in the first film. But in this case, she's battling the forces of nature. She is really stretching herself."

Adds head of effects animation Dale Mayeda, "In the first film, when she crossed the fjord, it was very stable with snowflakes beneath her feet. This time, it's not completely stable. Sometimes she falls down. Her magic in this sequence is reactionary-last moment efforts to save herself. The shape language is sharp and jagged. We can still see her signature snowflake shapes within it, but this is what you might call survival magic."

When Anna and Elsa get separated, Anna ends up in a dark cavern with no clear way out. According to Keene, the sequence brings to light-so to speak-Anna's own journey. "This is also a transformation," says Keene. "She's enduring some pretty heavy stuff, actually. She's dark emotionally and everything around her is dark, which isn't easy."

Beattie and his team used layout to help establish the mood. "We wanted to make it all feel uncomfortable as we get into the sequence," he says. "Then it was just a matter of subtle push-ins and moves to add height and emotion to what's going on. We kept everything pretty wide so that it felt empty and Anna would feel more alone and desperate."

According to Kallianpur, his team had to be strategic to light a dark environment in which the main character is dressed largely in black. "We had to make sure that Anna would read and that we could see her acting," says Kallianpur, who adds that the source of light is elusive. "We make it feel believable, even though it is coming from an impossible source. But from a story standpoint, that is one of the lowest points of the story."

Kallianpur says that leading up to the sequence in the cavern, filmmakers slowly drained the color. "Apart from the Dark Sea, it's probably our grayest and definitely the darkest sequence. But there is actually a dark side and a hopeful side, so when you look at the sequence you will see if you're facing Anna, it's really dark on screen right. On screen left, we have a little bit of light, which represents hope. As Anna gets up and realizes she needs to do the next right thing, we slowly bring in a little bit more color."

"Where the Northwind meets the sea, there's a river full of memory. Sleep my darling, safe and sound. For in this river, all is found." The lyrics in the lullaby Queen Iduna sings to young Anna and Elsa-while mysterious and ethereal-offer clues to answers that the devoted mother knows Elsa may someday seek. In "Frozen 2," Elsa discovers where she needs to go, but she has no idea what she'll find there.

Ultimately, the sequence, which is largely accompanied by the song "Show Yourself," features a stunning setting and a host of revelations. But for the storytellers, artists and technicians responsible for conceiving and executing the climactic locale, it was complicated. "It's really the focal point of the whole movie," says Giaimo-but, for now, that's all he'll reveal.

"Up is down, day is night when you're not there. Oh, you're my only landmark, so I'm lost in the woods, wondering if you still care."

"Frozen 2" Features Seven Original Songs from Kristen Anderson-Lopez & Robert Lopez, Score by Christophe Beck, Plus End-Credit Artists Include Panic! At The Disco, Kacey Musgraves and Weezer

Walt Disney Animation Studios' upcoming feature film "Frozen 2" features a stunning soundtrack, including original songs from Oscar- and GRAMMY-winning songwriters Kristen Anderson-Lopez and Robert Lopez, original score by GRAMMY nominee Christophe Beck, and end-credit artists Panic! At The Disco, Kacey Musgraves and Weezer.

"The music of the Lopezes and Christophe Beck are part of the DNA of 'Frozen,'" says director Chris Buck. "We couldn't imagine building 'Frozen 2' without them. They bring such a rich, emotional understanding of the world and characters, and through their incredible music we have been able to really deepen and expand the story."

"The songs and score of 'Frozen 2' reflect the growth of the characters and the deepening of their story," adds director Jennifer Lee, who worked alongside Buck and the Lopezes as she penned the screenplay. "The music is fun but emotional, personal yet powerful, intimate but also epic. Kristen, Bobby and Christophe have definitely outdone themselves and taken the music to brave new heights."

Seven all-new original songs were written for "Frozen 2." "From the beginning of our collaboration with Jennifer Lee, Chris Buck and Peter Del Vecho, everything we've created has come from big questions-what is the story that we all as artists, individually and collectively, need to tell?" says Anderson-Lopez. "Bobby and I approach the story through the lens of which moments of our story lead to big emotions-feelings so strong our characters can no longer talk but need to sing."

Adds Lopez, "Our tradition of songwriting comes from the world of musical theater, where songs must always forward the story in a fresh and surprising way. Every song has to take a character on a journey."

"All is Found" - performed by Evan Rachel Wood "It is an epic melody in disguise," says Lopez. "It's really Queen Iduna's secret message to Elsa, and it serves as a road map to the mythology of the story."

Adds Anderson-Lopez, "Evan Rachel Wood has a warmth to her voice, so it's wonderful to give her this mysterious and intimate song."

The song and its message are so important to the story that the theme recurs orchestrally in critical moments as a reminder of Iduna's relationship with the girls.

"Some Things Never Change" - performed by Kristen Bell, Idina Menzel, Josh Gad and Jonathan Groff
Anna, who is finally where she wants to be, is reassuring Olaf in the song that not everything has to change-in part because that's what she wants deep down. She has her family together-including Elsa-and as she says in the song, "I'm holding on tight to you!"

According to Buck, the title is misleading. "Our gang confronts change in 'Frozen 2,'" he says. "In the end, nothing will ever be the same."

"Into the Unknown" - performed by Idina Menzel (featuring Norwegian singer AURORA)
The song forces Elsa to ask herself some important questions: Where does she truly belong? What is her purpose? The nature of her journey is epic, which is reflected in the songs. "There is something pulling, almost seducing Elsa," says Anderson-Lopez. "It's a voice that only she can hear."

Adds Lee, "She starts off saying 'I hear you, but I don't want to.' But she can't help herself. It's this wonderful tug-of-war and ends up with her surrendering as she reaches the edge of a cliff. It's the catalyst for change."

Del Vecho agrees. "The song really starts Elsa's personal journey beyond Arendelle. It's really a show-stopping song that drives the entire story forward."

Menzel inspired the songwriters. "She's our muse," Anderson-Lopez says. "Her voice can go from low into a charged, passionate place-it's so exciting. And in 'Into the Unknown,' she's really vulnerable-it's a side of Elsa you haven't heard yet. It's more mature. It's questioning. It was so fun to explore with her."

"When I Am Older" - performed by Josh Gad "
'When I Am Older' actually does double duty," says Lopez. "We get to see that Olaf is changing, and we get to explore more of the enchanted forest, which is a big part of the movie."

Adds Anderson-Lopez, "Olaf is alone in the forest, but this forest is unlike any forest he's ever seen. Things catch on fire, the wind takes him for a ride, there are giant footprints, and he sees eyes looking up at him from the water."

Olaf, of course, is optimistic, believing it'll all make sense when he's older. Says Anderson-Lopez, "There's an important theme in the bridge of the song: 'Growing up means adapting, puzzling out your world and your place.' That's really what all the characters are doing."

"Reindeer(s) Are Better Than People (Cont.)" - performed by Jonathan Groff
Groff revisits the ditty he so eloquently sang in "Frozen," continuing its story to reflect what Kristoff is going through this time.

"Lost in the Woods" - performed by Jonathan Groff
The song channels '80s glam rock, illustrating Kristoff's struggles to move forward in his relationship with Anna. "He doesn't know why Anna left without telling him," says director Jennifer Lee. "The song is hilarious because it represents what he thinks of love. Plus, he's accompanied by singing reindeer, which makes complete sense because it's Kristoff's fantasy. It's genuine, too. He's singing about his love for her."

Says Anderson-Lopez, "He's a guy's guy who's falling into a bit of a crisis because his true love isn't understanding what he's trying to do. The 1980s was that brief moment in music when men were allowed to sing those big power ballads-and to be vulnerable while doing it."

Groff does the voices of all the reindeer, too. "An entire crew of reindeer join Sven," says head of animation Rebecca Wilson Bresee. "They sing at the top of their lungs, too."

Crowds supervisor Yasser Hamed and his team were responsible for animating the reindeer crowds. "We have never animated quadrupeds in crowds before," he says. "In 'Zootopia,' the animal characters were actually bipeds. So this was new. Then add to it the fact that they're singing."

"I have always been so different. Normal rules did not apply. Is this the day, are you the way I finally find out why?" - "Show Yourself," "Frozen 2"

"Show Yourself" - performed by Idina Menzel and Evan Rachel Wood
The song marks the moment Elsa finds her true purpose. "Elsa discovers what's behind the voice that's been calling her," says Anderson-Lopez.

Adds Menzel, "Everything culminates for Elsa within this song. She tames the Nokk and rides the water horse to Ahtohallan. It's a mythical, spiritual, amazing moment. And she comes to really love herself."

"The Next Right Thing" - performed by Kristen Bell
The deeply emotional song is the last song of the film. "Anna needs to choose optimism over despair," says Lopez. "It's a completely different tone from the first movie." Adds Anderson-Lopez, "I had recently watched people close to us go through the unimaginable. As a lyricist and a mother, I looked at their strength and courage and wanted to break that down to figure out what it takes to get over something like that. We all have seen darkness. In the hands of our eternal optimist Anna, what would it take? You break it down into the next breath, the next step."

According to executive music producer Tom MacDougall, who won a GRAMMY for the "Frozen" soundtrack, the "Frozen 2" soundtrack features a wide range of songs and an eclectic mix of artists performing the end-credit versions. Panic! At The Disco performs "Into the Unknown," Kacey Musgraves was called on for "All Is Found," and Weezer does a version of "Lost in the Woods."

"While we can't wait for the world to hear these songs, we feel like we got a sneak peek of how people will react with how quickly our end-credits artists signed on," he says. "Their excitement for the 'Frozen' world and these songs is represented in their wildly creative takes on each of their versions."

Beck, who's behind the score for "Frozen," returns to Arendelle for "Frozen 2." He ensured a cohesive musical thread throughout the film, weaving elements from the original songs into the score. Beck once again utilized traditional Norwegian instruments to showcase the unique setting of the film-"magical, but rooted in real tradition"-as well as the Norwegian female choir Cantus, who were recorded in Norway.

According to the composer, the new score reflects the evolution of the characters. "Similar to how Elsa and Anna have grown up since the last film, the new score has also matured and introduces more sophisticated musical concepts and thematic elements," he says. "The story's emotional arc is more complex and intense than the first so I wanted the score's thematic concepts and instrumentation to follow suit. I enjoyed exploring extreme dynamic contrasts, harmonic complexity, intricate textures with vibrant colors, and hugely expressive melodic moments."

For "Frozen 2," Beck created a new theme for Elsa that underscores her journey of self-discovery and determination to understand her powers. "Her theme reflects this sense of yearning with her strong perseverance and becomes very abstract and intense as she interacts with magical elements," says Beck, who also wrote themes for the Northuldra people and the four elements, as well as a special theme to celebrate the bond between Anna and Elsa. "Their relationship is the heart of our story, so I wanted to reflect their special bond in the score," says Beck. "The new theme embodies their strength and tenderness when they're together but also their melancholy and dissonance when they're apart."

According to Beck, the score was recorded with 91 of Los Angeles' finest players-the largest he's ever recorded with. "I wanted to push the boundaries of what they could play together," he says. "They delivered an incredibly virtuosic and technically demanding performance to create this epic sound.

"I particularly wanted to feature woodwinds in this score because they add so much color and richness to the orchestra," continues Beck. "They are often underutilized in contemporary film scoring, so I'm happy I was able to highlight their special, impressionistic qualities throughout."

"Frozen 2" digital deluxe soundtrack
1. Introduction - Christophe Beck and Frode Fjellheim
2. The Northuldra - Christophe Beck
3. Sisters - Christophe Beck
4. Exodus - Christophe Beck
5. The Mist - Christophe Beck
6. Wind - Christophe Beck
7. Iduna's Scarf - Christophe Beck and Frode Fjellheim
8. Fire and Ice - Christophe Beck
9. Earth Giants - Christophe Beck
10. The Ship - Christophe Beck
11. River Slide - Christophe Beck
12. Dark Sea - Christophe Beck
13. Ghosts of Arendelle Past - Christophe Beck
14. Gone Too Far - Christophe Beck
15. Rude Awakening - Christophe Beck
16. The Flood - Christophe Beck
17. Free Again - Christophe Beck and Frode Fjellheim
18. Reunion - Christophe Beck
19. Epilogue - Christophe Beck and Frode Fjellheim

According to Beck, while the score underscores the drama, emotion and action, it's also fun. "It really leans into the lighter, comedic moments and serves as a breath of fresh air to counterbalance the story's emotional depth and intensity," he says. "I especially wanted to reinforce Olaf's wise-cracking humor by carefully crafting the music around his performance. For example, during one of his long hilarious monologues, I took a page from Carl Stalling's book by scoring the literal action on screen - quickly cutting between brief musical references and bringing back short snippets from the first film - actual Mickey-Mousing if you will!"

The "Frozen 2" soundtrack is available from Walt Disney Records beginning Nov. 15, 2019. The "Frozen 2" vinyl cast songs soundtrack and "Frozen 2" digital deluxe soundtrack, including score by composer Christophe Beck, are also available on Nov. 15.

"How to rise from the floor when it's not you I'm rising for?"


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