THE FRONT RUNNER
About The Production (Cont'd)
Rice was quickly relegated to being a stereotype in the media and a pawn in the
machinations, but the film approaches her as something much more: a bright young
woman whose life and
future were upended in an instant. Taking the role of Rice is rising star Sara
Paxton, most recently seen as
Candy Shaker in David Lynch's Twin Peaks: The Return.
Paxton quickly won Reitman over. "For me, it came down to who could provide
Donna with a
sense of humanity that's never really been offered her," he says, "to who could
embody not only her
heartbreak but her intelligence and her desire to be taken seriously. Sara just
got all that immediately."
The script's approach to Rice drew Paxton. "I was really excited that Donna was
portrayed as an
educated, ambitious woman who suddenly became vulnerable to the world when she
was swept up in this
huge news story she never imagined could happen. I could really relate to how
Donna wants to be taken
seriously and I think a lot of women will relate to her. She had graduated summa
cum laude and suddenly
she was seen in a whole other light from who she felt she was. I really wanted
to play that character."
Paxton was thrown right into the deep end. "My first scene was the scene in
which Donna is seen
devastated, so that was interesting because then we worked backwards to the
boat, when Donna had no
sense of what was coming for her," she explains.
Having met Rice, Bai was especially moved by Paxton's performance. "Sara plays
the core decency and sincerity that are true to life-she brought everything we
hoped she would," he says.
"When you're tired and your feet hurt and your hands are freezing because you've
been knocking on
doors in Nashua for 12 straight hours, when you miss your boyfriends, your
girlfriends, your kids, when
you're tired of eating leftovers because we don't pay you jack, you think about
the opportunity we have
right now and the cost to this great country if we squander it."
As the Hart campaign rapidly descends from riding high to disarray, the brunt is
borne not only by
Hart and his family but equally by his campaign workers. Young men and women
from around the
country looking for something to believe in had circled around Hart and his
message-ready to sacrifice
good-paying jobs, sleep and social lives in order to fight for a different kind
of voice in the White House.
Creating that team, and creating the rapport of people who spend 16 hours a day
in a pressure
cooker together, was one of the great joys of the film for Reitman. He says,
"Putting together this cast was
more like putting together an orchestra, their chemistry and ability to play
together was just so imperative."
At the head of the campaign was Bill Dixon, a long-time friend of Hart's and
who nevertheless could not right the boat once the rumors about Donna Rice began
to sink it (Dixon left
both Washington D.C. and political campaigns for good after he resigned from the
Hart campaign). Taking
on the character is J.K. Simmons, an Oscar winner for the indelible role of
the perfectionist conductor in
Whiplash, and an actor who so regularly works with Reitman that Reitman dubs him
Say Reitman of why he always finds a role for Simmons, "J.K. is that player you
know can handle
any situation. I don't know another actor who can be as terrifying as he was in
Whiplash and then turn
around and be as vulnerable or as funny as he can be. I'm just lucky that he
agrees to be in all my movies.
As Bill Dixon he's the one person in Hart's campaign from Hart's generation, so
he's the veteran in the
room with all these idealist kids, trying to help them all to become better.
It's also a role that reflects the
audience, because Bill is asking all the hard questions that we all want to
Says Estabrook, "Jason loves to work with J.K. because he brings a real humanity
to whoever he
plays. J.K. has this ability to show you what his character is going through and
here you really get access
to Bill Dixon's leadership and the depth of his disappointment."
Simmons says he'd take any role for Reitman, but The Front Runner riveted him on
merits. "The naturalism of the script makes you feel you're in the room amid
these dryly funny, nonstop
conversations full of energy," he says. "It's also not a script that takes sides
and that intrigued me."
Although many of the cast members purposely did not seek out their real-life
Simmons did talk with the real Dixon, in part because he was so behind the
scenes. "He's a very
accomplished guy, a family guy, and he was really great," says Simmons. "Of
course we're not making a
documentary and there are many inconsistencies between Bill and me-for example,
Bill Dixon has hair.
But at the end of the day what I wanted, and what Jason wanted, was to get to
the core who this guy is."
Working with the young cast of campaign staffers was also a joy for Simmons. "I
found it really
refreshing to work with all these young actors who are so great at thinking on
their feet," he says.
Simmons knows Reitman's filmmaking as well as anyone but he notes this film felt
"Jason was looser and more open to improvising on this film to get that
experience of a room full of people
who are all really smart and who all want attention," he says. "It was just a
very electric atmosphere."
Jackman also raised Simmons' game. Says Gilbert, "One of the most memorable
scenes in the
film is when J.K. confronts Hugh as Gary. It was likely watch a heavyweight
prize fight watching the two
of them together. They both bring so much power."
Another key staffer is Hart's scheduler Irene Kelly, one of those put into a
position she never
imagined-escorting Donna Rice back to Miami while the campaign tries to forge a
strategy for fending
off total catastrophe. Taking the role, a composite based on several different
Hart staffers, is Molly
Ephraim, who cut her teeth on Broadway and has been seen in the Paranormal
Activity franchise as well as
the long-running sitcom Last Man Standing.
The role was an opportunity to explore the ways in which women for many decades
their own challenges when working for powerful political men. Says Estabrook:
"What I love about
Molly's character is that she is the one who ends up having to do a lot of
emotional work for a situation
she didn't create, which has so often been the case for women. That's an
extremely relevant part of the
story that speaks greatly to today and things we're just beginning to confront."
Ephraim describes Kelly as "stuck in the middle-because she believes in what
Hart stands for but
also finds herself in this strange predicament where she also feels sympathetic
to Donna Rice and has to
contend with what Donna is being put through by the man she's working for."
One of Ephraim's favorite parts of the role was bouncing off the ensemble.
"Jason put together a
group of people who were all so funny, which led to great off-the-cuff moments,"
she describes. But she
especially enjoyed working with Paxton as Rice. "We jumped into one of our
hardest scenes together on
day two and she was immediately in the zone and so moving," Ephraim says. "She
has this lovely
innocence, yet intelligence and your heart just breaks for what is happening to
Hart's fiery young press secretary Kevin Sweeney (who now works as a management
specializing in environmental responsibility) is played by Chris Coy, known for
his roles on The Walking
Dead, Banshees and The Deuce. "Kevin is a 28 year-old out of UC Berkeley who is
passionate and loud,"
describes Coy of his character. Coy, too, loved the process of creating the
"We would start talking about the stuff in the articles Jason gave us and the
next thing you know, the
camera's moving. It felt so conversational and genuine-more so than anything
I've ever been a part of."
When it came to working with Jackman, Coy, like many others, was pretty sure it
possibly live up to the legends. "There's a reason they say, don't meet your
heroes," he muses. "But Hugh
and Jason proved to be anomalies in that respect because they're both so nice.
Hugh can do anything
better than any of us, but somehow he is humble and made us all feel like we
really mattered to him."
Advance man Mike Stratton, whose job was to prepare Hart for public events and
conferences, is played by Alex Karpovsky, best known for his portrait of Ray on
series Girls. What struck Karpovsky is how close campaign workers were with the
press covering them at
that time. "It was fun to recreate those the days when campaign staff and press
would really hang out at
the end of the day and throw back a few beers with each other. They got to know
each other but they
would also exchange ideas with each other and they would grow and learn from
that," he comments.
Playing key staffer Doug Wilson, who advised Hart on policy matters (and went on
assistant secretary of defense for public affairs, making him the highest
ranking openly gay official in the
Pentagon), is Josh Brener, known for his role on the hit television comedy
Silicon Valley. "Doug is the
policy wonk," describes Brener. Brenner relished the chance to experience a bit
of what it's like to work
in the trenches on a national campaign. "There this strange mix of excitement,
exhaustion and punch
drunk hanging out that seems to be what campaign life is all about," he
observes. "It's not too dissimilar
from making a movie."
Deputy campaign chairman John Emerson is Hart's right-hand man, a man so good at
he was known as "Mr. Fix It." (Emerson would go on to work in the Clinton White
serve as U.S. Ambassador to Germany.) Taking the role is Tommy Dewey, known for
the Hulu series
Casual. A draw for Dewey was exploring the comedy inherent in political life.
"Even though it's a high-stakes
game they're playing and it's really stressful, there's a lot of humor in that
world. Comedy is a
release valve for these guys and a form of camaraderie."
That same style of camaraderie developed among the cast. "Putting together a
can be like catching lightning in a bottle," notes Dewey "But that's one of the
things that Jason really
nailed here. He intuited that there would be a great connection between us all
and there really was."
"So you get to decide which lies matter and which lies don't?"
As with the campaign staff, Reitman sought actors with strong comic chops to
portray the pool of
reporters traveling with Hart. They include A.J. Parker, a fictional composite
based in part on two
renowned reporters, EJ Dionne (then working for The New York Times though now
with The Washington
Post) and Paul Taylor of The Post. Parker spends an enormous amount of time in
Hart's sphere, getting to
know the candidate while killing long hours on planes and buses, developing a
genuine appreciation of
him. At the same time, he's trying to write a full-bodied profile of the man,
pushing him on rumors about
past trouble in his marriage. In the film it is Parker to whom Hart makes an
off-hand comment which was
published the same day as The Miami Herald story about Rice-one that will later
spur a feeding frenzy:
"If anybody wants to put a tail on me, go ahead. They'd be very bored."
Taking the role is ascending young star Mamoudou Athie, seen in The Get Down and
"My character doesn't take Hart's remark seriously at all," says Athie, "but
it's later used to justify the
press pushing the boundaries of Hart's personal privacy. That's when the story
on Hart becomes all about
entertainment and not at all about policy. And I think you can argue both sides
of whether a candidate's
private life should be news or not, but it was clearly a moment when things
changed in how the press was
going to cover politics."
Steve Zissis (Don't Worry He Won't Get Far On Foot) portrays real-life
Fiedler, who worked for more than 30 years at The Miami Herald as an
investigative reporter, columnist
and ultimately an executive editor-and received the incendiary initial tip about
infidelity by Hart. Though young in 1988, Zissis remembers "the famous image of
Hart with Donna Rice
on his knee" to this day but also notes, "I had no idea about the rest of story
until I read this script."
As one of the journalists who invades Hart's personal world believing it's his
appreciates that his character raises questions. "He's on one side of the debate
we're still having as to what
extent a politician's private life matters. The film raises all those
interesting questions but I think it also
tells a very human story that is just about all these different people trying to
figure out the right thing to do
in their position with this explosive event-and not everyone agrees which way is
right," notes Zissis.
Rounding out the main cast on the newspaper side is Ari Graynor as the Ann
Washington Post's deputy political editor, responsible for overseeing coverage
of the upcoming
presidential race; Mike Judge as Miami Herald journalist Jim Savage, Jonny
Pasvolsky as New York Post
writer Steve Dunleavy, Steve Coulter as Washington Post journalist Bob Kaiser
and Alfred Molina and
Spencer Garret as the legendary Ben Bradlee and Bob Woodward. To keep all
immersed in the
atmosphere, Reitman showed cast, crew and extras daily clips and videos of
reporters circa 1987, huddling
on planes or throwing questions at press conferences. "Everything had to feel
alive and that extended down
to the cameras, the booms or typewriters each media person was using," he says.
"This whole world we're in. None of it makes sense right now."
The locomotive energy of The Front Runner was built just as much behind the
camera as in front
of it, with the background as important as the foreground. For as much as the
film is rife with resonating
questions, it's equally just fun, freewheeling, inventive cinema. Reitman and
his close-knit crew of longtime
collaborators set out to bring audiences directly into the chaos, adrenaline and
characterize both a political campaign and the media scrum that formed around
Hart. Leading the team
were director of photography Eric Steelberg, production designer Steven Saklad,
costume designer Danny
Glicker and editor Stefan Grube. Together, they aimed to conjure a kind of quilt
effect, as dozens of
people, locations and details weave in and out of the larger tapestry,
consistently enlarging the picture.
This is the 7th film Steelberg has shot for Reitman, who says, "Eric and I are
so of the same brain
and the same visual language that communication between us is beyond shorthand.
It's just a joy making
movies with him. We both had so many ideas for this film and it was a constantly
No matter how well Steelberg knows Reitman, he also knew from the outset this
would stand apart
from anything they've done. "It was clear that this movie was going to be really
focused on the visual
experience and using the camera as its own storytelling device. It's the kind of
cinematographer would kill to do," he says.
Gratified by the opportunity, Steelberg jumped into the project with both
passion and a stream of
ideas that twined with Reitman's already intricate vision of the film. The two
were agreed that the
camerawork would be key to keeping the tension and visual excitement high in a
story that mostly takes
places in rooms full of people gabbing.
To begin they looked not only at The Candidate but also at the Chris Hegudus/D.A.
documentary about the runaway success of the Clinton campaign, The War Room.
Then, they branched
from political films to talk about the work Robert Altman-the acknowledged
master of overlapping
dialogue and roving cameras-as well as several benchmark films of the 70s such
as Three Days of the
Condor, Network, All the President's Men and Parallax View.
"We weren't looking to copy any of these films," notes Steelberg. "But they
inspired us to look for
fun ways to keep The Front Runner consistently engaging and encouraged us to
really play visually with
the mixed tone of levity and human drama. The more we talked about overlapping
dialogue and parallel
action, the more we realized that Altman was very relevant to what we were
attempting. What's funny is
that we were more influenced by 70s films, than 80s films but I think that the
70s is the period of cinema
that perhaps best evoked that moment in America before the digital age."
Reitman came into it already certain he was going to shoot on 35mm film. "'I
want to shoot on
film' was the first thing Jason said to me," Steelberg recalls. "He wanted that
imperfect feel, that texture
and palette. And even though I hadn't shot on film in 10 years, it was great.
We've become so
accustomed to a certain way of storytelling with digital that it felt amazing to
go back to putting more trust
into the camera and to having everyone give their all on the first take. Later,
we treated the film to make it
even a little grainier and broken down."
Adds Reitman: "We had a general rule to use only tech available in the 70s."
Indeed, even the
opticals were done to replicate the shake they had before digitization. At one
point, needing the classic
Columbia Pictures logo, Reitman scanned it off a print of Stripes (directed by
his father, Ivan).
The on-the-fly camera style pushed Steelberg daily, which he relished. One of
the most arresting
and complex shots of the film kicks off the movie-a meticulously choreographed
one-take that drops the
viewer directly into campaign life as Gary Hart concedes the 1984 Democratic
Party's nomination in San
Francisco to Walter Mondale. The shot revolves around the story of advance man
Mike Stratton's severed
fingertip, a story Reitman says, "is a strange true story that speaks to the
blood these people quite literally
give because they so deeply believe in what they're doing."
"The opening had been scripted very traditionally and we could have done it in 5
or 6 shots, but
we saw an opportunity to introduce the language of the film by doing the one
shot," explains Steelberg.
It was not a slam-dunk. "We had to close down a city street, bring in special
cranes, create a
virtual 3D model and spend a morning rehearsing it," Steelberg elaborates. "It
was a monumental
undertaking and relatively risky and we didn't know what would happen. We shot
one version of it in the
day but we weren't entirely happy so we came back again that night, brought back
the crane and the period
cars and closed down the street again, and got in nine takes. On the very last
take the timing was somehow
perfect, and seconds after, a huge thunderstorm came in. Getting that shot put
us on a high for the rest of
the production and set the tone that said, 'we're going to think outside the box
in how we tell this story.'"
That creative spark carried over into shot after shot. Another long take with
Gary and Lee Hart
coming together to have a private conversations in a diner was perhaps even more
Steelberg, as was a handheld shot of Hart moving out from inside a car, which
necessitated the creation of
custom-built, small-scale 35mm camera that could be handed from one camera
operator to another. But
some of Steelberg's favorite shots are also simple ones.
"One of my favorite shots is Gary and the campaign staff on the porch of his
cabin. It's not about
the camera movement there but about the composition, where you have each
character kind of evoking
their personality in the way they're standing and it has this almost Annie
Leibovitz feel to it. It's a quiet,
contemplative moment that contrasts with the more complex moments. That's
something we wanted to do
throughout the film because that contrast also speaks to Gary Hart and to this
Throughout, the camera was also embodying Reitman's desire to never judge the
"Jason always wanted to stay neutral," says Steelberg. "What that meant for the
camera is that every
character is treated the same and we didn't do a whole lot of close-ups. We
didn't do more close-ups with
Hugh than with anybody else. So you never feel the camera is leaning one way or
It added up to Steelberg's dream job. "This film was never about fancy shots and
lighting-it was about what lenses are you using or when are you moving or not
moving the camera or
how things are composed. This is what cinematographers live for," he muses.
Throughout, Steelberg collaborated closely with Saklad and Glicker so the
camera, sets and
clothing coalesce. "Steve and Danny served up such exquisite sets and super-rich
costumes that it gave my
lighting and camerawork so much more work with," Steelberg says.
For Saklad, an early edict was to embrace the messiness. "Part of the fun of the
movie is seeing all
the hidden workings of a campaign, so we have rooms where cable are hanging and
people crammed into
offices with phones going off and the camera always struggling to find its way
through crowds and
equipment," Saklad describes. "For me, the challenge was planning so that Jason
could point the camera
in any direction spontaneously and there would be something interesting there."
He was also recreating a world of payphones, satellite vans and telex machines
that a decade later
digital devices have erased. Verisimilitude was everything for Saklad and
Reitman. "Steve created an
exceptional level of detail in every inch of the set and that's what makes it
come alive," says Reitman.
Like Steelberg, Saklad's list of favorite moments is lengthy, but starts with
the opening shot.
"That was the one great plum we all wanted to nail. We felt we had to evoke
everything, from the exact
satellite trucks to the camera booms that were in use then, as well as source
some of the actual protestor
signs from 1984. It was a thrill to have all those layers."
Another thrill was recreating Hart's cabin in the prophetically named area of
the Rocky Mountains
known as Troublesome Gulch. "That cabin still exists," notes Saklad. "And Jason
was fortunate enough to
get a tour of it by Gary during prep, so we had great photos of the real place.
We also had some research
photos from 1987 so we were able to see the interiors and even the gate where
all the news vans collected.
We were really careful to replicate that look exactly as it showed up in the old
Some of Saklad's biggest challenges came in building two different newsrooms
contrasting the iconic old-school newsroom of The Washington Post with a more
modern vibe at The
Miami Herald. "To emphasize that contrast we made The Herald a little bit more
hip and glamorized than
it was, a little more Miami Vice, introducing glass and shimmery gold," says
Saklad. "But for The Post we
did pretty spot-on replica of what you see in All the President's Men-except,
importantly, a decade later
it's more worn-down and worse for wear."
Saklad designed the interior of the Hart campaign headquarters in three phases:
"First, we see the
office in its infancy before they really moved in; then we see it full flowering
where every surface is filled
with papers, binders and cables. And then, we do something that you didn't
actually see happen in reality,
where we bring in this sort of new look for the campaign. We liked the idea of
seeing all the new graphics,
posters and banners arrive in the last week of April for a campaign that will
never get any further."
Throughout, Saklad's team was on the hunt for vintage vans and taxis, as well as
cubicle dividers and IBM Selectric typewriters, the workhorse of the day. Saklad
also undertook a
particularly unusual search...for vintage food wrappers. "We wanted to have all
the offices lined in fast
food wrappers as they really were," he notes. "It became huge a search in our
department for items like
those waffled containers for 80s Big Macs, Dunkin Donuts boxes and period
Frito-Lay packaging. These
items were gold to us because they give you that reality of people who live at
That lived-in feel was equally essential to Danny Glicker's work. Glicker faced
a gauntlet given
the film's dozens of characters, spanning all ages and backgrounds, but he too
was driven by the chance to
create a dense background for Reitman's storytelling. The 80s intrigued Glicker
for very specific reasons.
"What I loved was the chance to explore the 80s as the very beginning of the
modern world that we live in
now. It had to feel like the final hurrah of a time before we were all wrapped
up in the speed and confusion
of the 24-hour news cycle. The world was becoming more complicated and
immediate, so you see
traditional style just starting to merge with the more streamlined."
In his 4th outing with Glicker, Reitman asked more of him than ever. "Danny and
I talked a lot
about this idea that it's easier to make a film set in 1587 than in 1987,
because we know what 1987 should
feel like enough that the detail has to be even greater to feel real. He created
an honest but visually
compelling version of how people looked going to work in 1987. It was such an
enormous job that our
wardrobe cage was like an entire floor of a department store. The area for shoes
and belts alone was
impossible to navigate. Even though you might not notice all the details Danny
and Steve conceived, down
to what the extras wear and the props specific to their characters, it all adds
up to make it feel realer than
Another 80s reality was also a significant influence on Glicker's work in the
film: by the mid
1980s the share of women in the workplace was the highest it had ever been (it
peaked in the year 2000)
and fashion was reflecting the shift. "You were seeing women in boxier
silhouettes with shoulder pads
and also blousier looks," says Glicker. "There was this really interesting
dynamic happening that was
almost an identity crisis because some women's fashion was hyper-feminine while
some was hyper-business-oriented.
So in the film, you see the men in very classical looks but it's really the
fashion that is kind of defining the cultural moment-which is right in line with
the complicated questions
about gender politics and social politics that the movie explores."
That's why he especially enjoyed designing for the characters of Donna Rice and
Irene Kelly. "I
always felt the heart of the movie is the scene when Irene and Donna have their
heart-to-heart, because I
think what the film is really looking at is all these people trying to figure
out where they fit in the world
before, during and after these events. From a visual standpoint, I loved the
idea of seeing these two smart,
ambitious, independent women who each have a very different worldview sitting
across the table. They're
very simple looks really for each of them but it was important for each of them
to stand out."
Though Glicker didn't go for slavish historical accuracy in every outfit, he did
recreate some of
Hart's original looks, especially the tie he wore both in announcing his
candidacy and ending it. "That tie
becomes very important in his trajectory," muses Glicker. Glicker loved how
Jackman and the rest of the
cast took made each article of clothing part of their personas. He summarizes:
"We painstakingly sourced,
created and built fabrics from the era but the most important thing we did was
to try to create looks for the
actors that would just feel real, lived-in and add to their performances."
Once production wrapped, a whole other layer of the storytelling began as
Reitman began editing
with Stefan Grube, who first worked with Reitman on Tully, and preparing the
score with Rob Simonson
(Foxcatcher). "The editing was so key to this film and Jason and Stefan did a
beautiful job of pacing the
film so there are moments of lightness and also moments that are so poignant,"
Adds Reitman, "This film was an enormous editing job. Up until this movie, I've
very precise about shooting. But here, I had to let things be more wild, let the
camera find the moments.
So Stefan and I had a lot of work to do, breaking that all down and putting it
all back together with a
rhythm that's very distinctive. Stefan identified that rhythm very early on and
he also did an incredible job
sourcing original news clips, not just news clips of Hart of but of news people
setting up cameras, fixing
their hair, making flubs, so we were able to integrate it all naturally into our
footage recreating these real
moments. Then Rob came in and gave us one of the most beautiful scores I've ever
had. Rob really took
that note from 1970s filmmaking to approach the music in a different way. Both
Rob and Stefan together
helped create that rhythm we associate with the 70s and adds to the hyper-real
feeling of the film."
With so many pieces combining to make the final film, everyone involved was
thrilled to see it all
come together as Reitman had hoped: forging its own 1987 universe while
reflecting on current times.
Aaron Gilbert says, "Everyone knew this film was not going to be an easy
endeavor but somehow that
inspired people to work even more closely and more passionately. I think the
result is one of Jason's best
films. It started with a wonderful script and continued with a cast and crew
that really delivered."
Helen Estabrook watched as a film that started out complex grew even more
complex as each
person added their skills and insight. "We always knew this film was going to
take in many, many
layers-and that it would not be a movie about one thing, but about a lot of
things," she says. "What's
most satisfying is that in every frame of the final film there's so much going
on, yet it's never telling you
what to think. Instead, it's bringing you deeply into this situation and leaving
you with questions you want
to talk about."
After suspending his campaign for president and retiring from the United States
Senate, Gary Hart
restarted his law practice, serving as a strategic advisor to major U.S.
corporations, and as a teacher, author
and lecturer. Since then, he has been one of America's most reliable and
analytical advisors on
As co-chair of the U.S. Commission on National Security for the 21st Century,
Hart warned that
the United States was at risk of a terror attack as he helped to oversee the
most comprehensive review of
national security since 1947 and proposed a sweeping overhaul of U.S. national
security structures and
policies for the post-Cold War new century and the age of terrorism.
Hart was most recently invited by John Kerry to serve as the Secretary of
representative in Northern Ireland, and was chair of the International Security
Advisory Board of the
Department of State, vice-chair of the Secretary of Homeland Security's Advisory
Council, chair of the
American Security Project, the Threat Reduction committee at the Department of
Defense, and co-chair of
the US-Russia Commission.
Hart was president of Global Green, the U.S. affiliate of Mikhail Gorbachev's
foundation, Green Cross International. He was a founding member of the Board of
Directors of the U.S.-
Russia Investment Fund; a member of the Defense Policy Board; and was a member
of the Council on
Foreign Relations. He was co-chair of the Council task force that produced the
Unprepared-America Still at Risk" in October 2002. Senator Hart was a member of
Academy of Sciences task force on Science and Security.
The author of 21 books, including four novels, Hart has been recognized as a
Visual Fellow at
Oxford University and as a Lecturer at Oxford, Yale, Yale Law School, and the
University of California.
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